A Descriptive Study to assess the knowledge and Attitude towards Blood and Organ Donation among college students in a selected college of West Bengal

 

Gopa Kundu1, Dr Uma Rani Adhikari2, Mitali Adhikari3

1Staff Nurse, Arambagh Superspeciality Hospital, Arambagh, Hoogly, West Bengal.

2Senior Lecturer, Govt. College of Nursing, Medical College and Hospital, 88 College Street, Kolkata-73.

3Senior Lecturer, Govt. College of Nursing, Burdwan, Aftab Avenue, P.O-Rajbati, Dist-Burdwan, W.B-713104

*Corresponding Author Email: email-w2uma@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Background: Blood and organ transplantation helps to regain patients’ life for second time. But health services are facing shortage of blood and organ all over the world. Thus we need to identify the cause behind organ and blood shortage. The aim of this descriptive research was to determine the knowledge and attitude of college students regarding blood and organ donation. Methods: Through convenient sampling self-reported data were collected from 180 college students. Self-reported data were collected using structured questionnaire and data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Majority (67.78%) of the students’ age is 19 and above, 51.67% are male, 92.78% are from Hindu families. Major sources of information regarding blood and organ donation was newspaper. 47.22% students had fair knowledge and most of them (73.33%) had favorable attitude score regarding blood donation. 52.78% students had fair knowledge score regarding organ donation and 72.78% students had favorable attitude score regarding organ donation. There was a positive correlation between knowledge and attitude score of blood and organ donation. There was significant association between knowledge score of blood donation with educational stream, availability of information regarding blood donation and participant’s blood donation history. There was significant association between knowledge score of organ donation with educational stream, habitat and availability of information regarding organ donation. Other sociodemographic characteristics were not associated with knowledge and attitude of blood and organ donation. Conclusion: Hence we need to think of measures to encourage people so as to achieve 100% voluntary blood donation and adequate supply of organ.

 

KEYWORDS: Blood Donation, Organ Donation, Knowledge, Attitude.

 

 


 

INTRODUCTION:

Blood is the essence of life and till now there is no substitute for blood and artificial blood is still in research laboratories. We can say that blood is natural gift for patients in need because they can't survive without it. Blood services are facing shortage of blood all over the world. Demand for blood is rising day by day and current blood donation is insufficient to meet the demand. According to WHO, 38% of reported voluntary blood donors are under the age of 25 years and WHO insists the countries to focus on young people to achieve 100% non-remunerated voluntary blood donation1. Therefore, understanding the various factors contributing to knowledge and attitude of voluntary blood donation among college students are important.

 

Organ transplantation is considered one of the greatest advances of modern science that has given many patients a renewed lease of life. The evolutions of advanced technologies in the scientific world have made organ harvesting for organ transplantation a safe and viable procedure for prolonging the lives of people suffering with organ failure. Organ transplantation has been widely accepted as a solution for end stage organ failure, and as a result the need for organs has increased. But the shortage of organ is a major problem worldwide2.

 

Thus we need to identify the cause behind organ and blood shortage. So, there may be some deficit of knowledge regarding blood and also organ donation. Due to deficit of knowledge there may be lack of positive attitude towards blood and organ donation. Based on the above evidence of low knowledge and low attitude researcher felt the need of this study. College students are the future generation of our society and they are dare-devil. So, our society’s condition will depend on them. Their knowledge and attitude towards blood and organ donation will have an impact on future availability of blood and organ. We therefore planned a descriptive survey research study to assess the knowledge and attitude towards blood and organ donation among college students.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Based on the study criteria, college students were recruited from a selected college of West Bengal through purposive sampling. Total 20 students were selected from each academic year and 60 students were taken from each stream. Finally data were collected from 180 students (science, arts and commerce stream). Data were collected in December 2016 through self-administered questionnaire. Structured knowledge questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge regarding blood and organ donation. It consists of 18 questions (blood donation) and 13 questions (organ donation) related. A structured attitude scale was developed to find out the attitude of college students on blood and organ donation. It was a four point Liket scale. Total items were twenty four, twelve items on blood donation and another twelve items on organ donation. Scoring of the Likert scale was done on the basis of type of statements and level of respondent’s agreement with statement. For positive statement, participants could get higher score i.e. four, if there was strongly agreement. In case of negative statement, participants could get higher score i.e. four if there was strongly disagreement with statement. The prepared questionnaire was given to 9 experts. The experts were chosen on basis of their clinical expertise and experience. Out of 9 experts 6 experts from nursing section among them 4 experts from Medical Surgical Nursing and another 2 experts from Mental Health Nursing field. Rests were medical practitioner in the department of Immune-Hematology, Blood transfusion and from renal transplantation unit. Reliability of the tool was established by calculating Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient formula on 30 college students and the reliability score “r” was 0.82 of knowledge questionnaire about blood donation and was 0.9 of knowledge questionnaire about organ donation. Hence the structure knowledge questionnaire was considered as a reliable. Reliability of the tool was done by the application of Cronbach’s alpha formula the reliability score “r” was 0.76 of attitude scale on blood donation and was 0.8of attitude scale on organ donation, which was >0.70. Hence the structured attitude scale was considered as reliable. Pilot study was conducted before conducting final study and it was found to be feasible.

 

Ethical permission was taken from Clinical Research Ethics Committee. Permission was taken from the principal of selected college. Informed consent was taken before data collection.

 

Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample characteristics. Correlation between knowledge and attitude score of both blood donation and organ donation were calculated by using Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient formula. Chi square test was used to find out the association between the selected demographic variables and knowledge and attitude score of both blood donation and organ donation.

 

RESULTS:

Table 1: Frequency and percentage distribution of sample characteristics. (n=180)

Sample Characteristics

Frequency

Percentages (%)

Age in year

17-18

19-20

21-22

Gender

Male

Female

Religion

Hindu

Muslim

Marital Status

Married

Unmarried

Monthly Family Income

<10,000

10,001-20,000

>20,000

Academic Year

1st year

2nd year

3rd year

Educational Stream

Arts

Science

Commerce

 

58

61

61

 

93

87

 

167

13

 

3

177

 

139

22

19

 

60

60

60

 

60

60

60

 

32.22

33.89

33.89

 

51.67

48.33

 

92.78

7.22

 

1.67

98.33

 

77.22

12.22

10.56

 

33.33

33.33

33.33

 

33.33

33.33

33.33

 

 

Data presented in the table 1 showed that the all the students age were between 17-22 years and most of the student were Hindu. Most of their monthly family income was less than 10,000.

 

The participant’s fathers were maximum self employed and their mothers were maximum house wife. Most of the students resided in rural area. Only 53.89% subjects have received information regarding blood donation and 52.78% received information regarding organ donation. 16 students were donated blood due to self motivation and 2 students were donated blood due to peer and relatives motivation.


 

 

Figure-1: Bar diagram showing area wise knowledge on blood donation.

 

 

Figure-2: Bar diagram showing area wise knowledge on organ donation.

 


The figure 1 depicted that highest knowledge score noticed in the aspect of before blood donation health practices i.e 87.22%, the lowest score noticed in the aspect of criteria to be a blood donor i.e.37.38%.The figure 2 depicted that highest score noticed in the aspect of general knowledge about organ donation i.e52.54%, the lowest score noticed in the aspect of organ preservation i.e 21.48% respectively.

 


 

 

 

 

 

Table 2: Frequency and percentage distribution of participant by their attitude score towards blood and organ donation.  (n=180)

Attitude Score

Blood Donation

Organ Donation

Frequency

Percentage

Frequency

Percentage

Favorable attitude

Moderately favorable attitude

Unfavorable attitude

132

48

0

73.33

26.67

0

131

49

0

72.78

27.22

0

 


Data presented in the table 2 showed that the maximum students had favorable attitude towards blood and also organ donation.

 

Table 3: Correlation between knowledge and attitude score of college students regarding blood donation. (n=180)

Variable

Mean ± SD

Calculated value of ‘r’

‘P’ value

Knowledge

Attitude

14.51 ± 4.65

36.16 ± 4.18

0.35

0.002

 

Table 4: Correlation between knowledge and attitude score of college students regarding organ donation. (n=180)

Variable

Mean ± SD

Calculated value of ‘r’

‘P’ value

Knowledge

Attitude

13.21 ± 5.05

36.16 ± 4

0.24

 

0.001

 

Data presented in the table 3 depicted that the mean knowledge score about blood donation was 14.51, mean attitude score was 36.16 and there was positive correlation between knowledge and attitude score of blood donation. Data presented in the table 4 depicted that the mean knowledge score about organ donation was 13.21, mean attitude score was 36.16 and there was positive correlation between knowledge and attitude score of organ donation.

 

Table 5 depicts that educational stream information received about blood donation and history of blood donation is significantly associated with knowledge score of blood donation. Only history of blood donation is significantly associated with attitude score of blood donation.

 

Table 6 depicts that educational stream, habitat; information received about organ donation is significantly associated with knowledge score of organ donation. Attitude score of organ donation is not associated with any of the mentioned sample characteristics. 


 

Table 5: Association between sample characteristics with knowledge and attitude score of blood donation (n=180).

Sample characteristics

Knowledge score

of blood donation

Chi-square value

P value

Attitude score of blood donation

Chi-square value

P value

Below Median

Above Median

Below

Median

Above Median

Age in years

17-18

19-20

21-22

 

25

28

34

 

33

33

27

 

2.119

 

 

0.35

 

 

29

30

29

 

29

31

32

 

0.075

 

 

0.963

 

Gender

Male

Female

 

42

45

 

51

42

 

0.775

 

 

0.38

 

 

40

46

 

53

41

 

1.752

 

 

0.186

 

Religion

Hindu

Muslim

 

81

6

 

86

7

 

0.027

 

 

0.87

 

 

80

6

 

87

7

 

0.015

 

 

0.903

Marital Status

Married

Unmarried

 

2

85

 

1

92

 

0.003

 

 

0.96

 

 

0

88

 

3

89

 

1.268

 

 

0.26

Monthly Family Income

<10,000

10,001-20,000

>20,000

 

72

8

7

 

67

14

12

 

 

 

2.935

 

 

 

0.23

 

72

8

8

 

67

14

11

 

 

 

2.202

 

 

0.333

Educational Stream

Arts

Science

Commerce

 

32

4

51

 

28

56

9

 

 

74.616

 

 

≤0.001

 

30

26

32

 

30

34

28

 

 

1.245

 

 

 

0.536

Habitat

Rural

Semi urban

 

78

9

 

81

12

 

0.285

 

0.593

 

78

11

 

81

10

 

0.082

 

0.775

Information received about Blood Donation

No

Yes

 

 

51

36

 

 

32

61

 

 

10.604

 

 

 

≤0.001

 

 

 

45

44

 

 

38

53

 

 

1.403

 

 

0.236

Donated Blood

Yes

No

 

2

85

 

15

78

 

10.053

 

≤0.001

 

0

88

 

17

75

 

17.957

 

≤0.001

 

 

Table 6: Association between sample characteristics with knowledge and attitude score of organ donation.  (n=180)

Sample characteristics

Knowledge score

of organ donation

Chi-square value

P value

Attitude score of organ donation

Chi-square value

P value

Below

Median

Above Median

Below

Median

Above Median

Age in years

17-18

19-20

21-22

 

27

24

26

 

31

37

35

 

 

0.632

 

 

0.729

 

20

31

25

 

38

30

36

 

 

3.311

 

 

0.19

Gender

Male

Female

 

43

34

 

50

53

 

0.94

 

 

0.332

 

 

40

36

 

53

51

 

0.049

 

 

0.82

 

Religion

Hindu

Muslim

 

73

4

 

94

9

 

0.825

 

 

0.364

 

 

71

5

 

96

8

 

0.081

 

 

0.78

 

Marital Status

Married

Unmarried

 

2

75

 

1

102

 

0.065

 

 

0.799

 

 

1

75

 

2

102

 

 0.076

 

 

0.78

 

Monthly Family Income

<10,000

10,001-20,000

>20,000

 

59

7

11

 

80

15

8

 

 

2.86

 

0.239

 

62

5

9

 

77

17

10

 

 

3.957

 

 

0.138

Educational Stream

Arts

Science

Commerce

 

24

7

46

 

36

53

14

 

 

52.064

 

 

 

≤0.001

 

 

25

23

28

 

35

37

32

 

 

0.865

 

 

 

0.65

Habitat

Rural

Semi urban

 

74

3

 

85

18

 

7.884

 

0.005

 

71

5

 

88

16

 

3.304

 

0.07

Information received about Organ Donation

No

Yes

 

 

45

32

 

 

40

63

 

 

6.796

 

 

0.001

 

 

40

36

 

 

45

59

 

 

1.544

 

 

0.21

 


DISCUSSION:

The present study points out that 47.22% student have fair knowledge and most of them (73.33%) have favorable attitude towards blood donation. These are supported by the study conducted by Karobi Das et al3 and Benedict Nwogoh et al4 that blood donors (40.4%) had good knowledge and (47.4%) had positive attitude towards blood donation. But majority of individuals are not donating blood regularly as volunteers because practically we see there is a difference between attitude and practice5.

 

According to this study 52.78% students have fair knowledge and most of them (72.78%) have favorable attitude towards organ donation. This is also supported by Ravinder Ahlawat et al6 and Juan M. Marques-Lespier et al7 study which showed that 54.3% students have good knowledge and 92.6% have largely favorable attitude towards organ donation. They also mentioned that majority of individuals are not donating organ because there is always a difference between attitude and practice7,as person may show positive attitude but he/she may think differently due to fears of donating blood and organ.

 

The present study reveals that there are positive correlation between knowledge and attitude towards blood and organ donation. This finding about blood donation is supported by the study conducted by Benedict Nwogoh et al4 and V. Kowsalya et al8 which showed a positive relationship (r = 0.90) between knowledge and attitude of blood donation. The finding about organ donation is supported by the study conducted by Mohadese Babaieet al9 and Vidya.M et al10 that correlation coefficient (r = 0.98) between knowledge and attitude towards organ donation was significant at 0.05 level. Practically we see that if a person is more knowledgeable then they will show more positive attitude towards the phenomena.

 

The present study shows that there is significant association between knowledge score of blood donation and educational stream, availability of information regarding blood donation and participant’s blood donation history. This is supported by Abnet Nigatuet al5 study which showed that most of the students having good knowledge on blood donation was significantly associated with source of information from health facility, mass media and family education. In this study it is also found that there is significant association between knowledge score of organ donation and educational stream, availability of information regarding organ donation. This finding is supported by the study conducted by Taimur Saleemet al11 which showed that knowledge is significantly associated with education. Generally we assume that students of science are more knowledgeable about blood and organ donation than students of other streams because of their syllabus. It is a common phenomenon that if a person receives information then he/she will be more knowledgeable. If any person has practical experience then also he/she will be more knowledgeable. This is also happened in case of knowledge and attitude of blood and organ donation.

 

This present study reveals that there is significant association between attitude score of blood donation with participant’s blood donation history. Karobi Das et el3 and Abnet Nigatu et al5 study also revealed that there was a significant association between attitude towards blood donation and blood donation history because the participants have donated blood as they have pre-existing positive attitude.

 

The present study also shows that there is no significant association between attitude score of organ donation and age, gender, religion, marital status, monthly family income, academic year, educational stream, father’s occupation, mother’s occupation, habitat and availability of information regarding organ donation. There is lack of published studies which showed relationship between blood and organ donation with demographic characteristics. Only one study by UshaBapatet al12 showed that there was statistically significant association between attitude and demographics. So it may be said that demographic characteristics is not an influential factors of knowledge and attitude toward blood and organ donation.

 

Practical implications of the study:

Nurses need to develop their skill in preparing health teaching material related to blood and organ donation according to community’s level of understanding. Improved and newer technique has to be used for motivating public for blood and organ donation. Conference, workshops, seminars and symposium can be held regarding blood and organ donation for college students and community people. Nurses are working in clinical field so most of the time they are in direct contact with the patients. They can motivate and counsel the patient and patient’s relatives for blood and organ donation. Nurses as an administrator should take interest in providing information about various importances of blood and organ donation. They should arrange awareness programs in the community, in hospital OPD, in high schools and also in colleges. In Indian context there is very less study conducted regarding blood and organ donation.  Besides conducting research, evidence based practice should be supported by the research result. Nursing researchers should concentrate on solving hidden problems that affect the attitude towards blood and organ donation.

The following limitations are observed in the study

·       The sample size was relatively small, thus restricting the statistical inferences of the results.

·       The Generalizability of the study findings is limited because of the purposive sampling.

·       The study was limited to the educational level (under graduate).

 

The following recommendations are offered for future studies.

·       A similar study may be replicated on large diverse population from various parts of the country.

·       A quasi experimental study can be conducted like assessment of effectiveness of awareness programs related to blood and organ donation.

·       Descriptive survey design may be attempted from other professional courses college.

·       A descriptive comparative study may be undertaken between urban and rural population, between male and female students and between general college students and professional college students.

·       The study findings can be used to take measure in order to improve awareness services to general population.

·       Involvement of community leaders and non-governmental organizations for arranging awareness programs about blood and organ donation for community people and specially youths for motivating them for blood and organ donation.

·       Religious organizations can serve as useful channel to motivate people for blood and organ donation since people always have reference for places of worship and for religious leader.

 

CONCLUSION:

In conclusion, it may be safely asserted that to improve knowledge and suitable attitude towards blood and organ donation among college students, more education and awareness programs should be arranged. Although students are having good knowledge and positive attitude towards blood and also organ donation still they are not donating. Hence we need to think of measures to encourage people so as to achieve WHO goal of 100% voluntary blood donation by 20202 and adequate supply of organ. The measures which can be taken to motivate people are awareness programs like seminars, workshops, conferences should be arranged and the community people and especially young adults should participate on those programs as they are the future generation of the society.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:

We are thankful to Principal of Tarakeswar Degree College, Hooghly, West Bengal for providing support to carry out this work. We are also thankful to The West Bengal University of Health Sciences, Kolkata. Our heartfelt thank goes to all the study participants who voluntarily participated in this study.

 

 

REFERENCES:

1.      Dr. MrigendraAmatya. Knowledge, attitude and practice of blood donation among students of different colleges of Kathmandu, Nepal. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Archives 2013; 4(3): 424-428; Available from: http://www.ijpba.info.

2.      Wolfe R, Merion R, Roys E, Port F. Trends in organ donation and transplantation in the United States, 1998–2007. Am J Transplant. 2009; 9:869–78. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02564.x.

3.      Das K, Geetanjali, Sachdev S, Kaur B, Singh CI, Nongbri D. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Blood Donors toward Blood Donation. J Postgrad Med Edu Res; Journal of Post Graduate Medicine 2014; 48(3): 123-127. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net.
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5.      Nigatu A, Demissie DB (2014) Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Voluntary Blood Donation and Associated Factors among Ambo University Regular Students, Ambo Town, Ethiopia. J Community Med Health Educ 2014; 4: 315. doi:10.4172/2161-0711.1000315

6.      Marques-Lespier JM, Ortiz-Vega NM, Sanchez MC, Sanchez MC, Soto-Aviles OE, Torres EA. Knowledge of and attitudes toward organ donation: a survey of medical students in Puerto Rico.P R Health Science journal. 2013 Dec;32(4):187-93;
7.      Ahlawat Ravinder, Kumar Vivek, Gupta AK, Sharma R.K., Mukutminz, Jha Vivekanand. Attitude and knowledge of healthcare workers in critical areas towards deceased organ donation in a public sector hospital in India. The National Medical Journal of India 2013;  26 (6): 322-326. 
8.      Kowsalya V, Vijayakumar R, Chidambaram R,  Srikumar R, Reddy EP,  Latha S et al. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among medical students in Puducherry, India. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 16(9): 439-442;
9.      Babaie M, Hosseini M, Hamissi J, Hamissi Z. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Nurses Regarding Organ Donation. Glob J Health Sci 2015; 7(6): 129-137.Available from URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v7n6p129.
10.   Vidya. M, Devi A, Williams S.  A study to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding organ donation among high school teachers at government school of Mysuru city with a view to organize a awareness program. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research 2016; 6(1): 61-64.
11.   Saleem T1, Ishaque S, Habib N, Hussain SS, Jawed A, Khan AA, et al. Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on organ donation among a selected adult population of Pakistan. BMC Med Ethics. 2009 Jun 17; 10:5. doi: 10.1186/1472-6939-10-5.
12.   Bapat U, Kedlaya PG, Gokulnath. Organ donation, awareness, attitudes and beliefs among post graduate medical students. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2010; 21: 174-80.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 27.01.2019         Modified on 20.02.2019

Accepted on 06.03.2019      ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Asian J. Nursing Education and Research. 2019; 9(2):256-262.

DOI: 10.5958/2349-2996.2019.00054.5