Study to Evaluate Effectiveness of Selected Nursing Interventions on Knowledge regarding Computer Vision Syndrome and Asthenopia among it Professionals

 

Ms. B. Sindhuja1, Prof. Devakirubai2, Dr. Nalini Jeyavanth Santha3, Prof. Chandrakala4

1M.Sc (N), Sacred Heart Nursing College, Madurai.

2Research Guide, Sacred Heart Nursing College, Madurai.

3Principal, Sacred Heart Nursing College, Madurai.

4Vice Principal, Sacred Heart Nursing College, Madurai.

*Corresponding Author Email: sindhubaskaran05@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Background of the study: Computer Vision Syndrome has been classified as the number one occupational hazard of the 21st century. It has become a significant public health problem. Sufficient knowledge about Computer Vision Syndrome and its preventive measures would help reduce the incidence in a population Objectives: The aim of the study to evaluate the effectiveness of selected nursing interventions on knowledge regarding Computer Vision Syndrome and asthenopia among I.T professionals. Materials and methods: A quasi experimental design, non equivalent pretest post test control group design was adopted for this study. The tools used for data collection was Structured Knowledge Questionnaire to assess the knowledge and Asthenopia scale to assess the severity of asthenopia among I.T professional who participated in the present study. The two I.T companies were selected conveniently. The samples for the study selected purposively. Sample size of the study was 60, among which 30 samples were in experimental group, 30 samples were in control group.

 

KEYWORDS: Effectiveness, computer vision syndrome, asthenopia, knowledge on computer vision syndrome, eye exercises.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Computers are one of the most fascinating inventions of the 20th century.  However computer users come up with new challenges at their work place.  By working for too long using a computer monitor, systemic and ocular symptoms can develop (Dr.Rachna Gupta, 2013). Asthenopia is a major complaint in subjects with computer vision syndro. The good news is that the eye and vision symptoms and problems of computer vision syndrome can usually be alleviated by good eye care and / or by changes in the work environment (Allergan India Limited, 2014). There is growing body of evidence that rise of computers can adversely affect visual health (Rosenfield, 2011).

 

The visual symptoms can largely be resolved with proper management of the environment and by providing proper visual care for the employees. (Sheddy, 1992). One way of providing visual care is to perform simple eye exercises. Knowledge of ergonomics is required to discipline computer users to avoid certain risk factors that can contribute to the development of visual disorders. Application of this knowledge can be directed to full fill two goals of health and productivity, correction of physical, work, organizational and psychological stress factors, and designing of safe furniture for easy-to-use interface with machines. The rise in the prevalence of computer vision syndrome and the negative consequences it has on the individual and community served as an impetus for the researcher to undertake this study.

 

 

OBJECTIVES:

1.     To assess the level of knowledge regarding computer vision syndrome and asthenopia among I.T professionals in the experimental group before and after implementing

2.     selected nursing interventions.

3.     To assess the pre and post test level of knowledge regarding computer vision syndrome and asthenopia among I.T professionals in the control group.

4.     To evaluate the effectiveness of selected nursing interventions on knowledge regarding computer vision syndrome and asthenopia among I.T professionals in the control group.

5.     To assess the relationship between the knowledge on computer vision syndrome and asthenopia.

6.     To find out the association between the level of knowledge regarding computer vision syndrome with selected demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, education level, religion, income, duration of work started with computer, knowledge regarding computer vision syndrome), clinical variables (having eye problems, going for regular eye checkup, use of artificial tears), ergonomic variables (ventilation in the office, type of chair, posture, number of hours computer use, taking rest period within the work time).

7.     To find out the association between asthenopia with selected demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, education level, religion, income, duration of work started with computer, knowledge regarding computer vision syndrome), clinical variables (having eye problems, going for regular eye checkup, use of artificial tears), ergonomic variables (ventilation in the office, type of chair, posture, number of hours computer use, taking rest period within the work time).

 

ASSUMPTIONS:

This study was based on the assumptions that,

1.     I.T professionals may have some knowledge regarding computer vision syndrome and asthenopia.

2.     Selected nursing intervention has no adverse effects on I.T professionals.

3.     Eye exercises are based on specific principles.

 

Conceptual Framework

This study is based upon Wiedenbach’s helping art of clinical nursing theory. Wiedenbach’s first published her ideas in 1964 in clinical nursing.

 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

Research approach:

A quantitative research approach.

Research design:

A quasi experimental design, pretest post test control group design non equivalent .

 

The setting of the study:

This study was conducted in two I.T. companies.

Elysium I.T company, Osiz I.T company Madurai.

Population:

I.T professionals working in Elysium I.T company and Osiz I.T company who fulfilled the inclusion criteria.

 

Samples:

The accessible population for this study were I.T professionals from selected I.T companies (Elysium I.T company and Osiz I.T company).

 

Sample Size:

The total sample size was 60, out of which 30 samples in the experimental group were from Elysium I.T company and 30 samples in the control group were from Osiz I.T company.

 

Sampling technique:

The two I.T companies were selected conveniently. The samples for the study were selected purposively.

 

Research tool and technique:

Part 1: Demographic data, clinical data, Ergonomic data

Part 2: Knowledge assessment questionnaire

Part 3: Asthenopia scale

 

Data Collection Procedure:

Ethical clearance was obtained from ethical committee of the Sacred Heart Nursing College and formal permission was obtained from the concerned authority of Elysium I.T company in Anna Nagar, Madurai. The duration of data collection was for 6 weeks. The selected I.T companies were allotted conveniently, Osiz I.T company to the control group and Elysium I.T company to the experimental group.  The samples were selected on the basis of inclusion criteria. Written informed consent was sought from the samples.

 

The study consisted of 60 samples, 30 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group. The design adopted for the study was quasi experimental design with pre test and post test control group design. Structured knowledge questionnaire on computer vision syndrome was used to assess the level of knowledge regarding CVS and asthenopia scale was used to assess the severity of asthenopia among I.T. professionals.

 

·       Pre test was conducted for both control and experimental group by the researcher in the first two days of first week. The Asthenopia scale was administered individually and it took 10 minutes for each computer worker to fill it. The structured knowledge questionnaire was administered as a group and it took 45 minutes for each group on the third day structured teaching program on computer vision syndrome (definition, causes, prevalence, risk factors, pathophysicalogy, treatment including, preventive measures) was conducted. It was conducted for 30 samples of the experimental group in 3 groups with 10 members in each group.  Each session lasted for 45 minutes to one hour.  The methods used were lecture and discussion. The A.V Aids used was power point presentation using a laptop. Followed by this, demonstration of selected eye exercises were taught. The eye exercises taught were palming, blinking, eye rolling, 20-20-20 rule, near-far focusing and closing eyes tightly.

·       The demonstration session lasted for 45 minutes. The samples were given a chance for return demonstration. The doubts were cleared. The instructors were given on the frequency and duration of performance of each eye exercise day during the 8 hour work schedule. An exercise schedule depicting the type of eye exercise, frequency and the time at which each exercise has to performed was hung in front of each of the sample. Different alarm tones were set by the researcher for all the 6 exercises to remind the samples to perform the exercises at the scheduled time. (Appendix-) Every session of the eye exercise was directly supervised by the researcher. The researcher received full support from the management of the setting for the smooth conduction of the study.

 

Post test knowledge assessment was done using structured knowledge questionnaire on 15th day. Post test assessment of severity of Asthenopia was done using Asthenopia scale on 15th day and 30th day.

 

Data analysis:

Data analysis was done according to the objectives of the study. Both descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage, standard deviation, correlation and inferential statistics like paired ‘t’ test, unpaired ‘t’ test, chi-square were used .

 

RESULTS:

96.6% of the experimental group and 50% of  the control group had moderate knowledge in the pre test. After attending Structured Teaching Programme in post test 100% of the samples gained adequate knowledge in experimental group. The mean pre test asthenopia severity score of experimental group is 15.4 and control group is 13.03% after doing the selected eye exercises the mean post test2 asthenopia severity score is 5.5.The findings show that the eye exercises were effective in reducing severity of asthenopia.

 

Comparison of pre test Vs post test level of knowledge regarding computer vision syndrome in the experimental group

TEST

MEAN

S.D

M.D

‘t’ value

Pre test

46.4

7.0

38.66

22.8

Post test

5.06

5.2

 

 

Comparison of post test level of knowledge regarding computer vision syndrome between experimental group Vs control group.

TEST

MEAN

S.D

M.D

‘t’ value

Pre test

85

5.2

39.66

3.93

Post test

45.7

7.13

 

 

 

 

Comparison of mean pretest Vs post test2 (30th day) asthenopia severity score of the samples in the experimental group.

TEST

MEAN

S.D

M.D

‘t’ value

Pre test

15.4

10.5

9.9

7.5

Post test

5.5

38

 

 

 

 

Comparison of post test2 (30th day) asthenopia severity score of the samples in experimental group Vs control group.

TEST

MEAN

S.D

M.D

‘t’ value

Pre test

5.5

15.05

7.8

3.42

Post test

13.3

4.9

 

 

 

CONCLUSION:

1.Work related computer vision syndrome is on the rise among computer workers.

2.Teaching on computer vision syndrome was found to be effective in improving the knowledge regarding computer vision syndrome.

3.Asthenopia symptoms decreased with regular performance of eye exercises.

4.Knowledge regarding computer vision syndrome correlated negatively with asthenopia severity.

5.Age, gender, religion, eye problem aggravating time, posture are significantly associated with knowledge regarding computer vision syndrome.

6.Area of residence, duration of having eye problem are significantly associated with asthenopia severity score.

 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE FURTHER STUDY:

On the basis of the present study the following recommendations are made for further studies.

·       A similar study can be done in various other populations like school children using computers, hospital administration, bank officials and so on etc.

·       A similar study can be done in various setting with large samples.

·       A longitudinal study can be undertaken to see the long term effect of the intervention strategies in reducing asthenopic symptoms among computer workers.

·       A descriptive study can be taken to determine the predictors of computer vision syndrome among computer workers.

 

 

REFERENCE:

1.     Bhanderi DJ, Choudhari S and Doshi VG, A community based study of asthenopia in computer operators, Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 2008;56:51-55.

2.     Dain SJ, Mc Carthy AK and Chan-Ling T. Symptoms in video operators. American Journal of Optometry Physical Optometry 1988; 65; 162-167.

3.     Isreb, M.A., Greiner J., Korb, D.R., Glonek, T., Mody, S.S., Finnemore, V.(2003). Correlation of lipid layer thickness measurements with fluorescein tear film break up time and Schemer’s test. Eye. 17, 79-83

4.     Thorud HM, Helland M, Aaras A, Kwikstad TM, Lindberg LG, Horgen G. Eye –related pain induced by visually demanding computer work. Optometric  Visual  Science 2012; 89(4):E452-E464.

 

 

 

Received on 29.06.2015          Modified on 10.07.2015

Accepted on 25.07.2015          © A&V Publications all right reserved

Asian J. Nur. Edu. and Research 6(1): Jan.- Mar.2016; Page 65-68

DOI: 10.5958/2349-2996.2016.00013.6