Samah M. Abd Elgaphar, Aml Ahmed Kanona, Naser Abd El Bary
Samah M. Abd Elgaphar1*, Aml Ahmed Kanona1*, Naser Abd El Bary2*
1Assistant Prof., Adult Health Nursing (Medical Surgical Nursing), Faculty of Nursing, Menofia University, Egypt.
2Prof., Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Menofia University, Egypt.
Volume - 11,
Issue - 1,
Year - 2021
Background: Most of women in Egypt and other developing countries lack knowledge about mammography and its use decrease although breast tumor increase. They reported discomfort during mammography and considered it a deterrent to future screening. Aim: to determine effect of multimedia health education on perceived discomfort (painand anxiety) among women undergoing mammography. Subjects and Methods: A quasi-experimental research design was utilized on a convenient sample of 100 women who presented to general surgery department of Menofia University Hospital and underwent mammography after breast examination. The sample was randomly assigned into two equal groups. The Pre-procedure multimedia health education about mammography was specific for the study group only. Data were collected using the following three tools: 1- Structured Interview Questionnaire II- Anxiety Questionnaire and III- VRS to assess sociodemographic /Patient's clinical data, anxiety, and pain severity respectively. Anxiety was measured twice pre- procedure (in outpatient clinic and in mammography unit) and pain was measured post procedure for all studied subjects. Results: Prior the procedure, there was no significant difference between the Study (47.18±10.8) and control (47.3±11.52) groups regarding the anxiety levels in the first measurement (p>0.05), but study group had lower anxiety scores (36.4±9.3) than control (52.2±9.82) in the second measurement (p> 0. 0.05). Post procedure, there was no significant difference regarding perceived pain (p>0.05). Conclusion: The present study concluded that Pre- mammography multimedia patient education had positive effect on decreasing women anxiety prior the procedure but did not affect pain during the procedure. Therefore providing proper and sufficient education about different aspects of breast diseases and mammography screening method is effective on anxiety.
Cite this article:
Samah M. Abd Elgaphar, Aml Ahmed Kanona, Naser Abd El Bary. Effect of Multimedia Health Education on Perceived Discomfort among women undergoing Mammography. Asian J. Nursing Education and Research. 2021; 11(1):15-22. doi: 10.5958/2349-2996.2021.00005.7
1. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D. Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin Mare Apr 2011; 61(2):69-90.
2. Myers ER, Moorman P, Gierisch JM, Havrilesky LJ, Grimm LJ, Ghate S, et al. Benefits and harms of breast cancer screening: a systematic review. JAMA .2016; 315:1406.
3. World Health Organization. (2018). Breast Cancer prevention, diagnosis and screening https://www.who.int/cancer/prevention/ diagnosis-screening/breast-cancer/en/
4. Dey S, Soliman AS, Hablas A, et al. Urbanerural differences in breast cancer incidence by hormone receptor status across 6 years in Egypt. Breast Cancer Res Treat Feb .2010; 120(1):149-60.
5. Salhia B, Tapia C, Ishak EA, et al. Molecular subtype analysis determines the association of advanced breast cancer in Egypt with favorable biology. BMCWomens Health. 2011; 11:44.
6. Millicent O, Ikeoluwapo O, Abideen O Oluwasola, Olufunmilayo I et al. Level of awareness of mammography among women attending outpatient clinics in a teaching hospital in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. BMC Public Health. 2013; 13: 40.
7. Hersch J, McGeechan K, Barratt A, Jansen J, Irwig L, Jacklyn G, et al. How information about overdetection changes breast cancer screening decisions: A mediation analysis within a randomized controlled trial. BMJ Open. 2017; 7: 1–8.
8. Moss S, Cuckle H, Evans A, et al. Effect of mammographic screening from age 40 years on breast cancer mortality at 10 years’ follow-up: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006; 368, 2053-60.
9. Montazeri A, Vahdaninia M, Harirchi I, et al. Breast cancer in Iran: Need for greater women awareness of warning signs and effective screening methods. Asia Pac Family Med, 2008; 7, 6.
10. American Cancer Society. (2012). Guideline for the early detection of cancer. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/ CRI.
11. National Cancer Institute. (2012). screening mammograms: questions and answers. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ factsheet/Detection/screening-mammograms
12. ZogbyJ. Arab Americans. Demographics. (2012). http://www.aaiusa.org/arab americans/22/demographics
13. Marmot MG, Altman DG, Cameron D, Dewar J, Thompson SG, Wilcox M. The benefits and harms of breast cancer screening: an independent review. British Journal of Cancer. 2013; 108:2205–2240.
14. Sapir R, Patlas M, Strano SD, Hadas-Halpern I, Cherny NI. Does mammography hurt? J Pain Symptom Manage. 2003; 25(1):53-63.
15. Alimoglu E, Alimoglu MK, Kabaalioğlu A, Çeken K, Apaydın A, Luleci E. Mamografi çekimine baglı agrı ve kaygı. Tanısal ve Girişimsel. Radiolojy.2004; 10: 213-217
16. Peipins LA, Shapiro JA, Bobo JK, Berkowitz Z. Impact of women's experiences during mammography on adherence to rescreening (United States). Cancer Causes Control .2006; 17:439‐47.
17. Al-Naggar RA, Isa ZM, Shah SA, et al. Mammography screening: Female doctors’attitudes and practice in Sana’a, Yemen. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2009:10, 743-6.
18. Al-Naggar RA and Bobryshev YV. Practice and Barriers of Mammography among Malaysian Women in the General Population. APJCP 13(8):3595-600 • August 2012
19. Anetta B, Peter H, Christine W and Sophia Z. Prevalence, Long-term Development, and Predictors of Psychosocial Consequences of False-Positive Mammography among Women Attending Population-Based Screening.Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research ,2015.
20. Nelson HD, Pappas M, Cantor A, Griffin J, Daeges M, Humphrey L. Harms of breast cancer screening: systematic review to update the 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation. Ann Intern Med 2016; 164:256–67. (Systematic Review)
21. Ahmed F, Mahmud S, Hatcher J, et al. Breast cancer risk factor knowledge among nurses in teaching hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan: A cross-sectional study. BMC Nursing, 2006; 19, 5-6.
22. Parsa P, Kandiah M, Mohd Zulkefli NA, et al. Knowledge and behavior regarding breast cancer screening among female teachers in Selangor, Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2008: 9, 221-7.
23. Amin TT, Al Mulhim ARS, Al Meqihwi A. Breast cancer knowledge, risk factors and screening among adult Saudi women in a primary health care setting. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 2009: 10, 133-8
24. Thomson MD, Siminoff LA. Perspectives on mammography after receipt of secondary screening owing to a false positive. Womens Health Issues. 2015 Mar-Apr; 25(2):128-33.
25. Smith RA, CaleffiM, Albert US, et al. Breast cancer in limited-resource countries: early detection and access to care. Breast J Jane Feb 2006; 12(Suppl. 1): S16e26.
26. Buckley E, Sullivan T, Farshid G, Hiller J, Roder D. Risk profile of breast cancer following atypical hyperplasia detected through organized screening. Breast 2015; 24:208–12
27. Atashzadeh Shourideh, F. (2007). Nursing Foundation. Tehran, 2nd edition. Golban Medical Publication. [Persian]
28. Miller D, Livingstone V, Herbison GP. Interventions for relieving the pain and discomfort of screening mammography. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 1.
29. Meryem Y and Ozlem K. Anxiety and pain associated with process mammography: influence of process information before. The Journal of Breast Health 2010 Vol: 6 • No: 2, 62-68.
30. Christensson, P. (2006). Multimedia Definition. Retrieved 2018, Nov 30, available at https://techterms.com
31. Perez-Lacasta MJ, Martínez-Alonso M, Garcia M, Sala M, Perestelo-Perez L, Vidal C, Codern-Bove N, Feijoo-Cid M, Toledo-Chavarri A, Cardona À, Pons A, Carles-Lavila M, and Rue M; Effect of information about the benefits and harms of mammography on women's decision making: The InforMa randomised controlled trial..journal.pone, 2019 Mar 26; 14(3).
32. El-Attar IA. Cancer databases in the Arab world. Ethn Dis. Winter. 2005, 15 (1Suppl 1): S1-3-4
33. American Cancer Society. (2012). Cancer treatment and survivorship facts and figures 2016-2017.
34. Spielberger, C.D., Gorsuch, R.L., and Lushene, R.D. (1970). STAI: Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press
35. Melzack, R., and Katz, J. (1992). The McGill Pain Questionnaire: Appraisal and current status. In D. C. Turk and R. Melzack (Eds.), Handbook of pain assessment (pp. 152-168). New York, NY, US: The Guilford Press.
36. Devolli-Disha, E., Manxhuka-Kërliu, S., Ymeri, H., Kutllovci, A.. Comparative Accuracy of Mammography and Ultra Sound in Women with Breast Symptoms According to Age and Breast Density. Bosn j Basic Med Sci, 2009; 9, 131 – 6.
37. Tehran HA, Kachoie A, Jafarbegloo E, Abedini Z, tabarraei Y. Effects of education and preparation on anxiety in women referring for mammography. Life Sci J ,2013;10(4s):132-136] (ISSN:1097-8135)
38. Koç Z, Sağlam Z. Kadınların meme kanseri, koruyucu önlemler ve kendi kendine meme muayenesi ile ilgili bilgi ve uygulamalarının belirlenmesi ve eğitimin etkinliği. Meme Sağlığı Dergisi.2009; 5 (1):25-
39. Lee J, Hardesty L A, Kunzler NM and Rosenkrantz AB. Direct Interactive Public Education by Breast Radiologists about Screening Mammography: Impact on Anxiety and Empowerment. JACR, November 2016; Volume 13, Issue 11, Supplement, Pages R89–R97.
40. Mainiero MB, Schepps B, Clements NC, Bird CE. Mammography-related anxiety: effect of preprocedural patient education. Women’s Health Issues. 2001; 11:110-115. PMID: 11275514
41. Nathan, S., Carol, M., Yulia, S., Krivoshekovae, E. Fear, anxiety, worry, and breast cancer screening behavior: A critical review. American Association for Cancer Research. (2004); 13, 501-510.
42. Lo SF, Wang YT, Wu LY, Hsu MY, Chang SC. And Hayter M. Multimedia education programme for patients with a stoma: effectiveness evaluation. Journal of advanced Nursing, (2011): 67(1):68_76.
43. Donnelly TT, Khater AH, Al-Bader SB, Al Kuwari MG, Al-Meer N, Malik M, et al. Arab women’s breast cancer screening practices: a literature review. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14:4519–4528.
44. Zaki YH and Askhar LK. Female patients’ perception of pain caused by mammography in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J. 2017 Jul; 38(7): 768–771
45. Fernandez ME. Palmer RC. Leong-Wu CA. Repeat mammography screening among low-income and minority women: A qualitative study. Cancer Control. 2005; 5: 77-83. PMID: 16327754
46. Ko CM, Sadler GR, Ryujin L, Dong A. Filipina American women’s breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors. BMC Public Health. 2003; 3:1-6. PMID: 12921541
47. Özdemir A, Coşar B, Maral I, Konuş ÖL, Coşar S, Öner AY. ve ark. Mamografi sırasında ağrı: sıklık, şiddet ve nedenleri. Tanısal ve Girişimsel Radyoloji. 2000; 6:31-36.
48. Doyle CA, Stanton MT. Significant factors in patient satisfaction ratings of screening mammography. Radiography. 2002; 8: 159-172.