Author(s): Banita Rana, VKSK Priyanka Kavuluru

Email(s): Email ID Not Available

DOI: 10.5958/2349-2996.2021.00063.X   

Address: Banita Rana*, VKSK Priyanka Kavuluru*
Dept of Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi College of Nursing (SMVDCON), Kakryal, Jammu, J&K.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 11,      Issue - 2,     Year - 2021


ABSTRACT:
Background: Most of the oral contraceptive (OC) users are under 30 years of age and in the critical period for bone mass accrual. Osteoporosis is a major health problem that leads to a high incidence of spine, radial and hip fractures. It is well recognized that a chronically hypoestrogenic state increases bone turnover that, in turn, causes a critical decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) an important determinant of fracture risk. During the premenopausal period, hypogonadism can have deleterious effects on skeletal health by reducing peak bone mass or inducing precocious bone loss. In young women, the most plausible intervention for this disorder at the moment seems to be the use of hormone replacement. Oral contraceptives are associated with an improvement in BMD. In perimenopausal oligomenorrheic women, the use of oral contraceptives seems to have bone-sparing effects. In conclusion, the protective role of oral contraceptives on bone density is biologically plausible, since this treatment represents a replacement therapy with continuous exposure to exogenous estrogens. People lose bone mass or density as they age, especially women after menopause lose calcium and other minerals. This study was carried out to investigate the oral contraceptive use and fracture risk within an obstetric population and to identify the severity of fracture risk and associated factors around women in a view of limited studies and resources, important consideration on literature review taken. Aim of Study: This systemic review aims to review the available studies to investigate the Oral contraceptive use and fracture risk in women. Methods and Material: A narrative review undertaken using the following databases in the end (August-December) of 2020, Pub Med, CINHAL, MEDLINE, National, International Journals and published articles regarding Oral contraceptive use and fracture risk in women. Results: Twelve research studies from databases regarding Oral contraceptive use and fracture risk among women concluded use of oral contraceptives and fracture risk among women. Out of 12 studies taken, nine studies revealed that use of oral contraceptives more than one year of age among women associated with lower risk of bone fractures and three studies revealed that increased risk for recent contraceptive users or in early age and risk is lower in post-menopausal women.


Cite this article:
Banita Rana, VKSK Priyanka Kavuluru. Oral Contraceptive use and Fracture Risk in Women- A Systemic Review. Asian J. Nursing Education and Research. 2021; 11(2):263-266. doi: 10.5958/2349-2996.2021.00063.X

Cite(Electronic):
Banita Rana, VKSK Priyanka Kavuluru. Oral Contraceptive use and Fracture Risk in Women- A Systemic Review. Asian J. Nursing Education and Research. 2021; 11(2):263-266. doi: 10.5958/2349-2996.2021.00063.X   Available on: https://ajner.com/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2021-11-2-23


REFERENCES:
1.    Nancy C. Lee, Herbert B. Peterson, and Susan Y. Chu. Health effects of Contraception. Contraception use and controlled fertility: Health issues for women and children background Papers. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK235083/#_ddd00066_, accessed on 08-August- 2020.
2.    Florence tremollieries, Impact of oral contraceptive on bone metabolism. Best practice and research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2013 Feb; vol 27(1): 47-53.
3.    C. Cooper, P Hannaford, P Croft, C.R. Kay. Oral contraceptive pill use and fractures in women: A prospective study. Vol 14, Issue 1, January-February 1993, Pages 41-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/8756-3282(93)90254-8.
4.    Martin Vessey, Jonathan Mant, Rosemary Painter. Oral contraception and other factors in relation to hospital referral for fracture: Findings in a large cohort study. Volume 57, Issue 4, April 1998, Pages 231-235. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-7824(98)00026-2.   
5.    Lopez LM, Chen M, Mullins S, Curtis KM,   Helmerhorst FM. Steroidal Contraceptives and bone fractures in women: evidence from observational studies. Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews 2015,Jul 21, Issue 7, article no: CD009849. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD009849.
6.    Delia Scholes, Andrea Z. LaCroix, Rebecca A. Hubbard,Laura E. Ichikawa,Leslie Spangler, Belinda H. Operskalski, MPH, Nancy Gell,Oral Contraceptive Use and Fracture Risk around the Menopausal Transition, PMCID: PMC4731309,NIHMSID: NIHMS737379,PMID: 26757274Menopause. 2016 Feb; 23(2): 166–174.doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000595
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