A pain measure in infants is one of the most significant health challenges in the developing world. Pain can be defined as unpleasant sensory and emotional experiences associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of skin damage. Fear of injection is most common in children even for minor painful procedure. Many children receive no intervention to reduce pain during injection The health professional must use effective pain management to reduce pain in children. Distraction helps in the reduction of pain and focuses the activity in the environment. Distraction is useful for children of all ages undergoing procedural pain. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of distraction on level of pain perception among infants receiving DPT immunization. The design employed for the study was a quasi- experimental post-test only control group design. The study was conducted in Southern Railway hospital, Perambur, Chennai. 60 infants, fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected by non-probability purposive sampling technique. During DPT immunization, distraction was given by sound producing rattle for 1 minute then post assessment was done by Modified neonatal infant pain assessment scale. The comparison of post assessment level of pain perception revealed the mean difference 5.87 and the unpaired ‘t’ value of 15.561 which was highly significant at p<0.001level. It reveals that the infant’s pain perception level was reduced after distraction in experimental group. Therefore, distraction can be used as a safe and effective pain reducing measures during immunization which gives comfort to the infants. It is an easy practical nursing intervention which helps the infants cope up with the common painful procedures like injection, blood collection, IV fluid placement etc.
Cite this article:
Prabhadevi. N. A Study to assess the Effectiveness of Distraction on level of pain perception among infants receiving DPT immunization in selected hospital, Chennai. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2022; 12(2):197-0. doi: 10.52711/2349-2996.2022.00039
Prabhadevi. N. A Study to assess the Effectiveness of Distraction on level of pain perception among infants receiving DPT immunization in selected hospital, Chennai. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2022; 12(2):197-0. doi: 10.52711/2349-2996.2022.00039 Available on: https://ajner.com/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-12-2-8
1. Franlang Porter, “Infant pain may have long term effects”, Center for the advancement of health, Science daily October 11 2021, on www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/08/990816065623.htm
2. N S Morton Pain assessment in children Paediatr Anaesth 1997;7(4):267-72. doi: 10.1046/j.1460-9592.1997.d01-83.x. available on https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9243682/
3. Kanwaljeet J S Anand, Jacob V Aranda, Charles B Berde et.al, Summary proceedings from the neonatal pain-control group Pediatrics 2006 Mar;117(3 Pt 2):S9-S22 doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-0620C. available on https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16777824/
4. Fran Lang Porter, Cynthia M. Wolf, Jennifer Gold.et.al, Pain and Pain Management in Newborn Infants: A Survey of Physicians and nurses, Journal of American academy of Pediatrics,1997;100;626 DOI: 10.1542/peds.100.4.626 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/13910734_
5. Wong’s and whaley, Clinical Manual of pediatric, 5th edition, mosby publication,2000
6. Anna Taddio, Moshe Ipp, Suganthan Thivakaran, Survey of the prevalence of immunization non-compliance due to needle fears in children and adults, DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.05.011. 2012 Jul 6;30(32):4807-12. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22617633/
7. Manimala MR, Blount RL, Cohen LL. The effects of parental reassurance versus distraction on child distress and coping during immunizations. Children’s Health Care. 2000;29:161–177. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326888CHC2903_2
8. Manimala MR, Blount RL, Cohen LL. The effects of parental reassurance versus distraction on child distress and coping during immunizations. Children’s Health Care. 2000;29:161–177. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2000-05712-002
9. McCaul, K. D., and Malott, J. M. (1984). Distraction and coping with pain. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 516–533.
10. Jessica Hillgrove-Stuart, MA, Rebecca Pillai Riddell, PhD Rachel Horton, MA, et.al. Toy-mediated distraction: Clarifying the role of distraction agent and preneedle distress in toddlers, Pain Res Manag. 2013 Jul-Aug; 18(4): 197–202. doi: 10.1155/2013/392125, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3812191/
11. Myron Yaster, David G. Nichols Pain management in the critically ill child The Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2001 DOI10.1007/BF02752416 68 8 749-769 https://www.infona.pl/resource/bwmeta1.element.springer-c622822c-f156-3cb5-8b62-fe8ffac88d8b
12. L L Cohen, R L Blount, R J Cohen, E R Schaen, J F Zaff Comparative study of distraction versus topical anesthesia for pediatric pain management during immunizations Health Psychology. 1999 Nov;18(6):591-8. doi: 10.1037//0278-622.214.171.1241. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10619532/
13. Cohen, L. L., MacLaren, J. E., Fortson, B. L.et.al , Randomized clinical trial of distraction for infant immunization pain. Pain, 125(1-2), 165-171. DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2006.05.016.: https://scholarworks.gsu.edu/psych_facpub.